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Brazilian jazz, such as bossa nova, is derived from samba, with influences from jazz and other 20th-century classical and popular music styles. Bossa is generally moderately paced, with melodies sung in Portuguese or English, whilst the related jazz-samba is an adaptation of street samba into jazz. Since the 1960s, creative centers of jazz in Europe have developed, such as the creative jazz scene in Amsterdam. British writer Stuart Nicholson has argued European contemporary jazz has an identity different from American jazz and follows a different trajectory. Gillespie’s collaboration with Pozo brought specific African-based rhythms into bebop. While pushing the boundaries of harmonic improvisation, cu-bop also drew from African rhythm.

Whiteman’s success caused blacks to follow suit, including Earl Hines , Duke Ellington , Lionel Hampton, Fletcher Henderson, Claude Hopkins, and Don Redman, with Henderson and Redman developing the “talking to one another” formula for “hot” swing music. It is characterized by melisma, wavy intonation, pitch instabilities within a pentatonic framework, and a declamatory voice. Comparing the music of New Orleans with the music of Cuba, Wynton Marsalis observes that tresillo is the New Orleans “clavé”, a Spanish word meaning “code” or “key”, as in the key to a puzzle, or mystery.

Although the pattern is only half a clave, Marsalis makes the point that the single-celled figure is the guide-pattern of New Orleans music. Jelly Roll Morton called the rhythmic figure the Spanish tinge and considered it an essential ingredient of jazz. The Office for Institutional Equity has been designated to handle inquiries regarding non-discrimination policies. For more information, visit The University of Memphis Equal Opportunity and Affirmative Action. I met Amy of Yazz Jazz Music & Productions in January of 2016 and instantly fell in love with her personality and professionalism. Planning my May 2017 wedding with Amy was one of the most joyous and honestly, the most pleasant parts of the whole thing.

Armstrong was a master of his hometown style, but by the time he joined Henderson’s band, he was already a trailblazer in a new phase of jazz, with its emphasis on arrangements and soloists. Armstrong’s solos went well beyond the theme-improvisation concept and extemporized on chords, rather than melodies. Armstrong’s solos were a significant factor in making jazz a true 20th-century language. After leaving Henderson’s group, Armstrong formed his Hot Five band, where he popularized scat singing. After Whiteman’s band successfully toured Europe, huge hot jazz orchestras in theater pits caught on with other whites, including Fred Waring, Jean Goldkette, and Nathaniel Shilkret. According to Mario Dunkel, Whiteman’s success was based on a “rhetoric of domestication” according to which he had elevated and rendered valuable (read “white”) a previously inchoate (read “black”) kind of music.

Early examples are Herbie Hancock’s Headhunters band and Miles Davis’ On the Corner album, which, in 1972, began Davis’ foray into jazz-funk and was, he claimed, an attempt at reconnecting with the young black audience which had largely forsaken jazz for rock and funk. While there is a discernible rock and funk influence in the timbres of the instruments employed, other tonal and rhythmic textures, such as the Indian tambora and tablas and Cuban congas and bongos, create a multi-layered soundscape. The album was a culmination of sorts of the musique concrète approach that Davis and producer Teo Macero had begun to explore in the late 1960s. Weather Report’s self-titled electronic and psychedelic Weather Report debut album caused a sensation in the jazz world on its arrival in 1971, thanks to the pedigree of the group’s members , and their unorthodox approach to music.

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