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This helped to establish or bolster the careers of vocalists including Al Jarreau, Anita Baker, Chaka Khan, and Sade, as well as saxophonists including Grover Washington Jr., Kenny G, Kirk Whalum, Boney James, and David Sanborn. In general, smooth jazz is downtempo (the most widely played tracks are of 90–105 beats per minute), and has a lead melody-playing instrument . The young Jazz Messengers’ contemporaries, including Roy Hargrove, Marcus Roberts, Wallace Roney and Mark Whitfield were also influenced by Wynton Marsalis’s emphasis toward jazz tradition.
These included Buddy Bolden and Jelly Roll Morton in addition to those from other communities, such as Lorenzo Tio and Alcide Nunez. Louis Armstrong started his career in Storyville and found success in Chicago. 1950s and ‘60s hard bop – exemplified by Horace Silver and Art Blakey’s Jazz Messengers – added the influence of gospel and blues to bebop to create a stripped back, bluesy sound, and this developed into Soul jazz, which might use the hammond organ to create a soulful, church-influenced sound.
On the other hand, traditional jazz enthusiasts have dismissed bebop, free jazz, and jazz fusion as forms of debasement and betrayal. An alternative view is that jazz can absorb and transform diverse musical styles. As jazz spread around the world, it drew on national, regional, and local musical cultures, which gave rise to different styles.
New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine, ragtime and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation. In the 1930s, heavily arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, a hard-swinging, bluesy, improvisational style and gypsy jazz were the prominent styles. Bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging “musician’s music” which was played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed near the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, linear melodic lines.
It’s the most versatile with varying styles, genres and sounds, and you don’t have to worry about lyrics offending your guests or inhibiting conversation. It offers a wide variety of musical pleasure and laid-back party vibes sure to keep the party going. At the School of Jazz and Contemporary Music, you can develop your skills, confidence, and identity under the guidance of legendary musicians. With a selection of 80 ensembles recast every semester, the school offers you the opportunity to play the kind of music you want to make, with different kinds of musicians, under the direction of award-winning artists. Our New York City location offers you opportunities to perform every night of the week. The jazz program also presents a monthly jazz series at the Club Downunder in the Oglesby Student Union.